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Главная arrow Методическая работа arrow Уроки arrow «Ecological problems are a cause of ill-health in human beings»
«Ecological problems are a cause of ill-health in human beings» Печать E-mail
18.09.2012

Урок для 10 класса
разработала учитель английского языка
СШ № 34 г. Могилева
Малиновская А.М.

Тема: Ecological problems are a cause of ill-health in human beings.

Цели:
— изучить и охарактеризовать основные экологические проблемы в нашей стране;
— определить их негативное влияние на здоровье людей и репродуктивное здоровье молодёжи;
— использовать средства иностранного языка в жизненно-ориентированном образовании;
— развивать общеучебные умения собирать, систематизировать и обобщать информацию, представляющую интерес для учащихся;
— развивать навыки и умения вести обсуждение (т. е. слушать и высказываться), формировать и мотивировать свою позицию;
— воспитывать ответственное отношение к своему здоровью и способствовать формированию чувства личной ответственности за будущие поколения.

Задачи:
— развитие умения заполнять схемы, анализировать диаграммы, оформлять постеры;
— формирование лексических навыков по теме «Экология и здоровье»
— обучение восприятию на слух с извлечением нужной информации;
— развитие компенсаторных навыков; развитие навыков чтения публицистических текстов с извлечением информации.

Оборудование:
— макет будущего постера; схема «Outdoor pollution» ; брошюра «Popular report of the Environmental conditions in the Republic of Belarus» ; таблица результатов опроса; диаграммы, газеты и журналы для исследований.

Ход урока:

I. Введение. Создание атмосферы. (Цель — обозначение значимости изучаемой темы)
Вступительное слово учителя.
Dear students! Today we are having our lesson on the topic «Ecology.»

Ecology is the branch of science studying the interactions among living things and their environment.

It is one of the most important and difficult topics among those we discuss at our lessons. We shall talk about many important ecological problems and I hope that you will exchange your opinions about this global problems. We humans now dominate the Earth more than any other species had ever done and the Earth is in grave danger of suffering irreparable harm from our activities. Our demands of its fragile resources are threatening everything from the atmosphere to plant and animal life.
Fifty years ago hardly anybody was concerned about environmental problems. Industrial and economic development, progress and profit were more important. Now more and more people are aware environmental problems. During the last 30 years environmental protection has become a vital necessity of people.
According to the Popular report of the Environmental conditions in the Republic of Belarus for 2003:

The population of Belarus is concerned about the environmental conditions. In a poll, 47,1% of the respondents answered they were concerned about the environmental situation in their living areas, 29,5% — «rather concerned», 13,8% — «rather not concerned», 5,1% — «not concerned», and 4,5% found it difficult to answer the question.

(В классе проводится экспресс — голосование)
Учитель: Now we can add our answers to this poll.

II. Разминка. (Цель — актуализация знаний по изучаемой проблеме)
На партах лежит схема «Outdoor pollution»:


Car exhausts Nuclear stations Gases from supersonic jets and refrigerator factories
Factory chimneys Communal and industrial waste
Agricultural chemicals Waste of railway stations Concentration of harmful substances

Задание: Изучите схему, в группе определите, что на ваш взгляд является наиболее опасным источником загрязнения окружающей среды. Ответ обоснуйте.
(когда группы определяться с ответом, учитель раздает следующие схемы для анализа и фактического подтверждения их ответов).


Ecological problems are a cause of ill-health in human beings
Ecological problems are a cause of ill-health in human beings
  • Railway pollution accounts for 9 % of all harmful substances.
  • Ever year railway enterprise throw into the atmosphere nearly 40 thousand tons of harmful substances.
  • Railway transport throws out into the atmosphere 300 kinds of harmful substances which change the structure of air
  • Vehicles currently emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year.
  • The motor car industry requires a vast quantity of raw materials. It uses 20% of all world’s steel, 10% of aluminium, 7% of copper, 50% of lead and 60% of natural rubber.

Предполагаемые ответы учеников:

I. Waste of railway stations. I think that one of the most dangerous sources of pollution of the Earth is railway transport. Now railway pollution accounts for 9 % of all harmful substances. Railway transport pollutes the air. Every year railway enterprises throw into the atmosphere nearly 40 thousand tons of harmful substances. It is known that one locomotive exhausts as much harmful waste into air as 40 or 50 cars. Railway transport throws into the atmosphere 300 kinds of harmful substances which change the structure of air. These substances get into the water, so many rivers, oceans and lakes are much polluted. When people build and exploit railway stations they change the structure and properties of the soil. At the same time railway transport is a great source of noise. As we know that noise is a special kind of environmental pollution.

II. Car exhausts and factory chimneys. Now many parts of the world are overcrowded, people live in big cities and much of the waste, especially waste from factories, electric power stations, the chemical industry and heavy industry are very dangerous. Large cities all over the world are full of smoky industrial enterprises. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances.
And I’d like to tell about dangerous driving. Driving is also one of the sources of pollution. The amount of cars on the territory of Belarus has increased. Town traffic throws out into the atmosphere 68% of all harmful substances. We breathe the air polluted by the waste of the town traffic. Some people are used to wash their cars in the rivers and in the lakes. They don’t think about the damage of their actions. The noise of town traffic influences the health of the people whose houses are situated near the main roads. As the result, the population of our country suffers from different diseases. Such diseases as bronchitis, asthma, bad headaches, and stresses are the result of the harmful influence of driving.

III. Communal and industrial waste. We are sure that one of the most dangerous pollutants is communal and industrial waste. Waste is a problem for both urban and rural residents. But it is more acute for the urban population who has to throw out as waste absolutely different things, from normal food packaging to household stuff. On the average, 200 to 400 kg of solid domestic waste is produced by an urban resident. They have to be taken to dumping sites. All this is consumer waste. There also exists industrial waste. On the average, 28 mln t of waste are produced by industries, which is around 2, 8 t of this waste per resident of the Republic. The general level of utilizing waste in Belarus is still low. It is only 16 per cent. At the same time international experts believe that the share of waste to be dumped should not exceed 10%. The rest can be returned to the production sphere. Steel, paper, glass, stones, plastic are most valuable and cheap materials for the production of multiple goods of different designation.

IV. Nuclear stations. We think that nuclear stations are very dangerous. Radioactivity is invisible, but it can cause great damage to our Earth and people’s health. According to the diagram our republic is surrounded by four nuclear power stations. They are close to our territory. You can imagine what will be with us if Chernobyl tragedy happens again. 20 years passed after it but we still suffer from its after-effects.

Учитель: Я считаю, что то, что мы обсуждаем на сегодняшнем уроке будет интересно и другим ученикам нашей школы. Вот макет стенгазеты, в которую мы внесём информацию, полученную в ходе урока.
(Учитель заранее заготавливает лист ватмана с названием «Health is above Wealth»; по ходу обсуждения на нём появятся названия рубрик будущей газеты, согласно с рассмотренными в ходе урока вопросами)

III. Работа над текстом «Indoor pollution» (Цель — получение дополнительной информации по изучаемой проблеме)

Учитель: You see, that the Earth is being damaged in countless ways. Car exhausts and factory chimneys are choking the air. Gases from supersonic jets and refrigerator factories are punching a hole in the atmosphere’s protective ozone layer. Rivers are poisoned by agricultural chemicals. Unique species of animals and plants are vanishing forever.
But a lot of people think that if they live in the country side of far from railways and industrial enterprises they are protected and out of danger. They do not guess that they have the greatest contact with toxic pollutants not outside but inside their homes, offices and cars.

Задание: прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  • What are the main sources of indoor pollutant?
  • How can people reduce the harmful effect of indoor pollutant?

INDOOR POLLUTION
Most citizens have the greatest contact with toxic pollutants not outside but inside their homes, offices and cars. These places are usually considered to be unpolluted, but the level of many contaminants proved much higher indoors than out.
The main sources of indoor pollutants are right under people’s noses — dry-cleaned clothes, dusty carpets, paint, fumes from cooking, and heating and cigarette smoke, pesticides, solvents, deodorizers, cleansers. Of course, this list is incomplete.
Indoor air and house dust contain poisons that can be tracked in on people’s shoes. Carpets are most troublesome. They act as deep reservoirs for pollutants, dangerous bacteria and asthma-inducing allergens even if they are vacuumed regularly. Wiping one’s feet on a door-mat reduces the amount of pollutants in a carpet by a factor of six. Removing one’s shoes before entering is even more effective than just wiping one’s shoes. These preventative acts are very simple but effective.

IV. Изучение влияния экологических факторов на здоровье человека. (Цель — формировать сознательное отношение к своему здоровью через осознание факторов, влияющих на него)
Учитель: You see that our environment is in a very dangerous situation now. We used the word «dangerous» many times when we were talking about ecological problems. But what are they dangerous for?
Ответ класса: For our health.
Учитель: It has been known since ancient times that there is a link between pollution and poor health. Many scientists believe our health is in trouble because we have been polluting the earth’s land, air and water for too long. Let’s see in what way environmental pollution influence our health.
Unfavorable environmental factors affecting public health are: atmospheric air pollution and drinking water and food product contamination.
Задание: Познакомить с результатами исследований по своей проблеме. Предложить меры, которые должны быть прияты для улучшения ситуации в данной области.
(Учащиеся класса предварительно разделены на группы ученых — исследователей)
The 1st group: air pollution
The 2nd group: indoor pollution
The 3rd group: radioactive pollution
(При обмене информацией ученики заполняют следующую карточку. Если информации для заполнения карточки недостаточно, ученики задают дополнительные вопросы)


1. Air pollution causes acute changes ...
a) in lung function b) in heart
2. Car exhausts contain ...
a) oxygen b) lead
3. Lead is toxic to...
a) reproductive system b) immune system
4. Lead can significantly ... the IQ of school-aged children.
a) reduce b) increase
5. Benzene is known to cause ...
a) kidney diseases b) leukemia
6. The average concentration of benzene people inhale in their houses is ... than typical outdoor levels.
a) three times higher b) not higher
7. The health of children ... by the Chernobyl disaster.
a) has been seriously affected b) hasn’t been affected

Выступление первой группы:
Without air there can be no life. Without air of good quality there cannot be a healthy life. Air pollution is an old problem, which has in this century assumed wide economic and social significance. Perhaps the first general realization of the new dangers came with the great London smog of December 1952. For five days the capital of England was enveloped in a grey shroud, and over 4 thousand people had died and incalculable numbers had suffered a worsening of bronchitis and heart disease.
An average person requires over thirty pounds of air a day or about six pints every minute. Daily the individual draws 26000 breaths, between 18 and 22 each minute, many of which are of filthy air. The lungs of town inhabitants are usually grayish in colour, those of country people are normally pale pink. Air pollution causes acute changes in lung function, respiratory illnesses, heart decease aggravation of asthma and bronchitis.
The air is being polluted by acid gases, dust, petrol and diesel fumes and poisonous chemicals. These come from cars, factories and power plants.
Of all the pollutants, that taint the air, fine suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and ozone pose the most wide-spread and acute risks. However, airborne lead pollution, coming from car exhausts, is a critical concern in many cities as well.
Cars currently emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. Car exhausts contain lead, which is added to gasoline to improve the engine performance.
Lead is particularly toxic to the brain, kidney, reproductive system and cardiovascular system. It is very dangerous because it can accumulate in the body. Lead is a special hazard for young children. Lead exposures can significantly reduce the IQ of school-aged children; they also cause aggressive behavior, delinquency and attention disorders.

According to the Popular report of the Environmental conditions in the Republic of Belarus for 2003:
Within the morbidity structure, respiratory diseases rank top — 70,0%. According to specialists, atmospheric air conditions determine the frequency of respiratory diseases by about 30%.

Our suggestions:

  • We should clean up the air.
  • We should stop the destruction of the ozone layer.
  • We must stop pollute the air with by-products of the activity of the industrial enterprises.
  • Walk, cycle or take public transport wherever possible.

Выступление второй группы:
We came to the conclusion that everyday items with which people happily share there homes, could be more dangerous to their health than industrial pollution. Every day we use many chemicals known to cause cancer. They are benzene, chloroform and others. The chief sources of these toxic volatile compounds are ordinary products such as air fresheners, cleaning compounds and even various building materials. For example, benzene is known to cause leukemia. It is present in some household products and in tobacco smoke. The average concentration of benzene people inhale in their houses is three times higher than typical outdoor levels. 45 % of benzene comes from smoking and only 3% comes from industrial pollution! So living with a smoker is dangerous for one’s health.
Indoor air contains ten and more times higher concentrations of pesticides than outdoors air. House dust is the major source of exposure of cadmium, lead, and other heavy metals. Few people know that the pesticides and volatile organic compounds found indoors cause perhaps 3000 cases of cancer a year. So these substances are just as threatening to the people’s health as radon and tobacco smoke for nonsmokers. They are especially dangerous for children health: each day an average urban child ingests 110 nanograms of benzoperene — it is equivalent to smoking 3 cigarettes.

Our suggestions:

  • Give up smoking! Even a modest reduction in cigarette smoking would significantly reduce the rate of benzene causing deceases.
  • Improve ventilation in your houses, use water and air filters.
  • Avoid household products, containing toxic compounds

Выступление третьей группы:
The environmental safety of nuclear power engineering is beginning to assume paramount importance. People’s careless interaction nuclear power caused environmental disasters. The most horrible disaster which happened in April 1986 befell Belarus and the Ukraine and their people. As a result of the Chernobyl tragedy about 18 % of the territory of Belarus was polluted with radioactive substances.
When inside a human body, ionizing radiation causes intricate processes of biochemical transformations and mutations in cells. It may result in cancer, immunity disorder and shorter lifetime. In context of the Chernobyl catastrophe the pathology of thyroid gland has turned into the most urgent problem of contemporary medicine.
The health of children has been seriously affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Due to long-lasting radio nuclides, the accumulated dose is increasing, especially for children living in contaminated areas.
More than half of all infant deaths are caused by prenatal problems in the period between 28 weeks of pregnancy and seven days after birth. Congenital abnormalities are another leading cause of infant death. One of the main reasons of the situation is radioactive pollution.
Our suggestions:
— We should have the radiation control of an area and food products
— Radiation can be protected against by time, distance and substance. The shorter the time of staying close to the source of radiation, the less the irradiation. If the dosimeter reads 1000 mR/h, at 5 m distance the reading will be down to 40 mR/h. You should try to have the more substance the better between you and the source of radiation.
— To stop all nuclear weapons tests;
— To close down nuclear power stations and nuclear reprocessing plants;

V. Выступление независимого эксперта по проблеме уровня детских заболеваний в Беларуси. (Цель — усиление мотивации учащихся ориентироваться на здоровый образ жизни)
Dear ladies and gentlemen! The statistic is horrible. Practically there is no healthy child nowadays. Almost 80% of children suffer from different diseases. I’ve taken the information from the Popular report of the Environmental conditions in the Republic of Belarus for 2003.
You can see that many children have diseases of central nervous system, diseases of blood (such as anemia), diseases of digestive system, especially gastritis, diseases of breathing system (such as pneumonia, quinsy, and asthma), diseases of eyes, ears, etc. According to the facts of the health organizations of Belarus, our children also suffer from tuberculosis [tjubWkju’lqusIs]
, rheumatism [’rHmqtIzqm], diabetes [daIq’bJtJz], scoliosis, hepatitis [hFpq’taItIs] and diseases of thyroid [’TaIrOId] gland. Besides, because of psychological and social problems, such illnesses as alcoholism and drug addiction have appeared nowadays. The situation is very serious.
Look at the diagram. Here is the morbidity rate of the pupils of our school. (диаграмма составлена по результатам беседы со школьным врачом)

VI. Игра «I do not agree because...» (Цель — скорректировать поведенческие мотивы учеников в отношении вредных привычек и негативных влияний извне)

Учитель: You see that the statistics is really horrible. But you know that according to Popular report of the Environmental conditions in the Republic of Belarus for 2003 :
... Morbidity and mortality rates of people depend not only on worse environmental conditions. According to specialists, public health depends 15-20% on genetic factors, 25-50% — way of life, 10% — activities of public health services, and 20-40% — quality of the environment...
You see that your health depends on your personal behaviour. No doubt that bad health habits are the important reason of the high sick rate.
And I can say more: your children’s health is closely related to your own health. Everyone has the right to enjoy reproductive health, which is a basis for having healthy children and happy families. Let’s see if you can be good parents for your future children.
Ход игры: на обратной стороне пронумерованных карточек написаны утверждения, противоречащие нормам здорового образа жизни. Ученики по очереди открывают карточки и опровергают написанное. Необходимо объяснить свою точку зрения.


1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

  1. Watching TV is the greatest thing in your life. It’s not dangerous for your health.
  2. Taking drugs leads to happy life.
  3. It is said mat smoking a cigarette stimulates the activity of the brain.

Smokers don’t cause damage to non-smokers.

  1. All food is a good fuel for people.
  2. Stress does not influence our health.
  3. Alcohol can help you to forget about your problems.
  4. Lying in the sun is healthy.

Cars are friendly to the environment.

VII. Домашнее задание.
Учитель: All of you were active participants of today’s discussion. I’d like you to write reports or articles for our future newspaper. You can choose what problem will be reflected there.

VIII. Рефлексия
Учитель: I have already written the introductory article for our poster. But some words and expressions have been missed.
Here is the article. I’d like you to help me to complete it with the necessary words.

IX. Обобщение.
Conclusion:
We can still choose how we use our environment and how to behave. But if we are wasteful today, our children won’t have the same choices tomorrow. When we use resources wisely, we honor the trust the next generation has placed in us. Every generation has the right to a safe and healthy environment and the opportunities it provides.
Environmental threats like global warming and the water crisis take their greatest toll on children. They will continue to take their toll, for the mistakes of today will continue to haunt the world tomorrow.
We must act today. The world belongs to our children; we are its caretakers. We must preserve our natural resources even as we use them, to ensure our children’s rights to a healthy environment. By speaking up and changing how we use resources, we can protect our children’s world.
Психологическая рефлексия «Цветовая мишень»

poll — an occasion when a lot of people are asked their opinions about something, usually as research for a political party, television programme etc. [2] ;

 
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